The US Pilgrims Thanksgiving:
freedom of worship and the transformation of a government for the people
{exiles from the nations}

Why do people need to establish a government, none the less that is for the people, why isn't this natural for the people? This page is about discovering how the US pilgrims which originally came from Europe seeking the freedom of worship (which they called the freedom of religion), inadvertently prepared a way for the first government that latter declared or embraced that it was for the people and by the people which also had some political influence on other nations. Now the pilgrims didn't originally call themselves pilgrims, but they saw they fit that description later. Why? To answer this question of how a government for the people came about, we will have to define what government is and what gives it the authority, which is also linked to what inspires and controls the people. And what pilgrims are, and what made the US pilgrims different? Because there never was a government for the people by the people before, there was never this kind of freedom before.

Did they eliminate or have a sovereign? In other words who gave them the right, or their rights, especially to free enterprise {freely investing one's labor into an interest that potentially has a more personal and direct return} for a heavenly dream to come true within their country? Formerly only kings anointed by a priest had this authority and honor, or held this position. Was their some kind of authority change? Why aren't all governments by the people if the prevailing authority is the result or at least a reflection of what the people invest into and labor for, or are they?

So before we can understand the forces and passions that caused the US Pilgrims to make the choices they did and to risk coming under a certain trust, we must briefly define the powers at work behind an interest, and ultimately one that has a intimately celebrated return. Then we might be able to determine if a real glory was at work during the events the US Pilgrims were going through, or if it might just be luck. However, regardless of what you might think, know for sure that they interpreted these events as God's destiny for them, because they trusted in his Living Word (alive, active, and forever good and true). The Plymouth Pilgrims went through great troubles, and made great sacrifices to prove their love for God's Living Word (his only uncorrupted Son). And some events were so far beyond their control that it could only be said that a heavenly force was seeing heir endeavors through for its glory. And this would end up being the glory of thanksgiving, and a freedom in that glory with a real inspired interest – but only after being humbled through great trials. And that this trust did not come from man, but had man in mind with its interest – it was from God their creator. Could this be the only case, or are the people for the people naturally?

Defining a glorious desire: shared interest with a return

Religion and Politics have always been intertwined because of our need for an authority and a personal value; where a person gets their right(s) to see an interest shared and a desire to be satisfied – and this is what motivates who or what we will willingly labor for. So it must be noted that for a government to exist or carry on, the people will only enthusiastically labor for a kings (political intercessor) heavenly (spiritual interest and value that has the power for a great satisfaction) dream to come true if they have a share in its glory. So it is very important to note – that politics and religion (laboring for a shared interest – friendship bound by a heavenly trust) greatly influence and inspire each other, and they can't be separated if bound by a real glory. And if they are not bound by any glory, they will not prosper – it affects the economy because of a lack of friendship, trust, and a value for a heavenly desire to be satisfied. Also, if a person isn't committed to any higher authority they have no security, so they labor unproductively. But even if it's unwillingly we are all laboring for someone's dream to come true, which is linked to who or what we serve.

So now we should also distinguish a difference between investing into one's desired kingdom bound with a sacred friendship, and trading products for a potential friendship or to be at peace. Because the hidden glories honor and shelter only those subjects that desirously spend the best of themselves, because the subjects share the inspired interest and desires from that type of glory. It's not really about the products the subjects produce although some of the products do reflect a great interest in the glory they want to be included intimately with. And so it seems as an act of compassion and peace, generally trading products is always been acceptable, depending on the product, even between different nations and peoples, which really gives one an inclination that God does provide every being with an ability to a potential skill to see a dream come true, and share in a friendship. But who one honors with these abilities and products is different because they may woo or court a different interest and glory. So trading products is different than investing into an interest or glory, and to be covered and immersed in a greater glory is the only reason kingdoms are built.

So True interest is one you would willingly labor for and invest into (to potentially taste a shared glory) which encompasses starting an enterprise; employing, and establishing a business, trade, skill, service or company (which can be the same as family) in the country or inheritance that God grants you – to potentially see a heavenly dream come true. Then we can see a distinction between trading a product and expressing true, pure, or sacred interest within an established trust so a glorious dream might come true – the skill, freedom to invest and sacrifice, employ one's neighbor (share the dream and sacrifice) to create a valuable product with each reaping the return (profits) and friendship of each one's hard labor, relative to how much each invested. And to have a product that makes life easier or more enjoyable is the result of a type of friendship or can lead to it, with any profits being the icing on the cake. But the real treasure is in the labored for friendship and the glory that binds it!

So that we can see a true interest is not about investing into an established kingdom that belongs to another unless one hates their own people or authority (king), but then you would think they would take on another citizenship and/or exile, unless one likes to live in terror. Because I don't think it is natural for the people to invest into another power or government that takes their freedom to choose and invest into an interest away, or is it? The only way I could see that a people would give their technology, craftsmanship methods, and secrets away to a contrary government is if either the people subconsciously desired to be under another form of government, seduced by a foreign affair, a backdoor lover; and/or that God, or their god put it in their heart to abolish themselves in his/her jealousy and need for honor and recognition.

In any case the USA was no longer accountable to the kings of the world and they were granted a freedom to express an interest, and they eventually prospered for a time, with the potential of true friendship in the pursuit of happiness, and potentially a heavenly dream that could come true. They all could potentially live like kings in this sense. What judge or power were they accountable to, and what glory inspired them? How did a government that eventually emphasized it was for the people get this opportunity, how did it come about? What does an independent nation depend on as an authority to be independent? Who is their representative to a trust, whose heavenly dream do they share and believe in that promises a return with true and real interest that's worth the best of their labor?

People choose governments because they have no rights or godly power (glory) of their own

If you search history, a society without any laws, king, or standard, never prospered a nation nor was it popular with people in general. There never was a famous and desirable nation without a government. Some have even termed people in these societies without a government as savages. So people who valued themselves as in a way to find honor or in the least valued their hard labor would see a value in boundaries (laws defined the boundaries) as a necessity, and termed a government without government, or more correctly a society without government, an anarchy, and frowned upon it. So it is assumed by the definition of government, that all governments are set up to keep an order that would be favorable to its people within their boundary and inheritance; piece of land and kingdom. So in that sense all governments were chosen by the people to avoid chaos. But never before in history was there a government that emphasized it was for the people, as in the general populace.

We should also note that almost everyone seeks a freedom. Then we can reason that freedom is linked to being able to labor {freely express an interest} for a dream and desire to be fulfilled, and that this is spiritually inspired by different kinds of hidden glories that promise something. And again, in history the people were never for all the people nor was it ever in anyone's mind before, so that there is a constant quest for freedom in human nature. Then we can see that the very basic reason for this is that the different glories different cultures sought or embraced, or the lack of a real one that fulfilled, put the people in offence with another. However, in a government system termed democracy there was an attempt to unite people through accepting different people's idols, but it always ended up with a dictator which some referred to as demi-god. And so some people seemed to always be looking for a new world, a paradise like environment, and a glory worth their labor – the pursuit of happiness. And of those who acknowledged that there is greater force at work that gave them an existence for a potentially glorious reason, and wanted to find or be in its glory were referred to as pilgrims by the world. Pilgrims were called pilgrims because they would go on a pilgrimage; spiritual quest even to traveling a great distance, looking for a holy land, or a stairway to heaven.

a painting of thanksgiving made in 1914
Fig.7a-1       The First US Thanksgiving at New Plymouth: painted 1914
by By Jennie A. Brownscombe (1850−1936)
copyright warning
Image might not be public domain outside of the United States; This image is in the public domain in the USA because its copyright has expired. Applies to Australia, the European Union and countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years.

With this in mind, if you seek out the veiled cause of the rise of notable empires or kingdoms, there is a heavenly inspiration that caused them to prosper, at least for a time. Did they have a real divine visitation from God, or did they want to be listed among the stars? Either way, you will find, governments have no real power or prosperity apart from heaven or hades – there is a metaphysical connection – you decide which heaven. But really it is God {unseen Judge} that gives respect to governments if they have a true interest, and judges them {rewards them} for their interest – what they honor for real, even if it's a different glory than God the creator and Father of all life —the reward is just a curse because of an unclean interest.

Those in Europe coming from the period of time called the enlightenment, and of those, the enlightened ones that fought for the independence of the USA, called this hidden force the invisible hand. [within a slightly different context than Adam Smith who also was from the enlightenment and wanted its power]. Because there is a glory bigger than people, a veiled intelligence that inspires and controls the outcome of its subjects. And to those who have been inspired and sensitized, or at least to the true thirsty seekers there is a somewhat distinguishable outside power or an awareness of a glory that transcends from a hidden dimension in life that captivates the hearts of its people (those that honor it and labor for/share its interest) and gives them some kind of authority.

And a desire to be in immersed in a particular glory is the only way people would enthusiastically spend their energy, sweat and blood, and experience and contribute to marvels – prosper within a reciprocated interest. Otherwise we are natural born slaves, we will only feed our flesh, and even that interest isn't worth our own sweat and labor willingly, and no one will be able to cover us because of the never ending deficit (the dying flesh can't spend itself and be comfortable). And because the dying flesh can never be satisfied which leads to a never ending lust, there is no glory there to bind a friendship and no external trust or security. There is no satisfying dream and desire greater than one's self for those embracing and trying to find comfort in death – only an attempt to enslave the objects of their interest so they can feed their flesh free of their own futile effort.

So whether we are motivated by a shared interest or natural born slaves looking for some kind of security, we must labor for someone who has the authority to see an inspired dream come into reality because they are aware of a glory in life worth their greatest and sincerest {honorable} effort. And those with that authority make a way for that glory and its promises (trust) to manifest itself because it's also their enabler and provider. Because there is a veiled power and intelligence that inspires a trust within its glory and binds its people within a real reciprocated interest, and this is for an outrageous dream and desire to be satisfied and for a government {kingdom} that will not end – a taste of a new world so that an interest is proved steadfast and a trust can be sealed justly and once and for all.

Yet, for the sake of human argument we could reasonably say only kings can establish governments, and even at that they have to be anointed or swore in to a greater glory for any recognition or even possible respect from other world powers to their interests. But the point is that regular people never have and never could establish their own government — governments are not technically by the people ! Governments have always come from a higher and greater authority. Though in some cases but not all cases, the people can choose the government they want to serve. Maybe because people are like sheep without a shepherd? Now let's investigate what actual events led to the first recognized government that was for the people.

Discerning religious Christians merchants and Christians seeking a heavenly treasure

Before the evidence is presented it should be noted that to the US pilgrims, which came from Europe, there was no other religion even thought about other than Christianity, so that when they speak of the freedom of religion they are referring to a thief, a lie, and a perversion in the Christian churches that was actually keeping them from freely worshiping God, not because they had a desire for another god, but for a real one!

Because when people want to maintain their own glory (keep their pride even though they are cursed to die) and be their own god, they lust for power or control because we really are not gods and are fading away – not an eternal authority. And because people don't have a glory of their own (they weren't born in heaven although they are a work of art) if they don't really have a real interest to know God and come under his favor so his glory would truly cover them, then they have to attempt to steal it or claim it from a real glory. And this lust for control (control we never have because all people are subject to a higher intelligence, even unknowingly) is how non-believers become religious and do everything they can to take control of churches, which leads to enslavement and a romance with death, because people are not gods, they cannot change a heart or provide life, they are jars of clay. William Bradford who was one of those on the Mayflower, wrote about the conditions that finally led to contracting or hiring the Mayflower to seek a new world:

The one side laboured to have ye right worship of God & discipline of Christ established in ye church, according to ye simplicitie of ye gospel, without the mixture of mens inventions, and to have & to be ruled by ye laws of Gods word, dispenced in those offices, & by those officers of Pastors, Teachers, & Elders, &c. according to ye Scriptures. The other partie, though under many colours & pretences, endeavored to have ye episcopal dignitie (after ye popish maner) with their large power & jurisdiction still retained; with all those courts,, cannons, & ceremonies, togeather with such livings, revenues, & subordinate officers, with other such means as formerly upheld their antichristian greatness, and enabled them with lordy & tyranous power to persecute ye poor servants of God. This contention was so great, as neither ye honor of God, the commone persecution, nor ye meditation of Mr. Calvin & other worthies of ye Lord in those places, could prevaile with those thus episcopally minded, but they proceeded by all means to disturbe ye peace of this poor persecuted church, even so farr as to charge (very unjustly, & ungodly, yet prelatelike) some of their cheefe opposers, with rebellion & hightreason against ye Emperour, & other such crimes.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch1, p6-7. Retrieved on January 10, 2016 from ).

In other words the Christian churches had become institutions of men, and they perverted the words in the Bible to bring glory to themselves that they were doing God's work so they should own the whole land, which fueled the feudal system of land lords. All the while the religious (unbelieving) Christians needing servants and promoting a love for slavery so they seemed like a god or saintly because they found a way to flatter themselves (self-worship or admiration), get a free gift, and to be another's provider (because their servants weren't allowed to own anything, at least without condition), and then charge them for it, even against their will. So there is a vicious cycle that the more the Christians couldn't find a true interest worth their labor, the more they desired servants, and the more they desired servants the less they could find a true interest worth their best labor — a friendship with a common heavenly dream that could really come true. And it got so bad that whether godly or ungodly some were willing to risk falling off the end of the world, so to speak, or at least not knowing if they could survive crossing a vast ocean to find a new world and a treasure from heaven. {Guard your heart from corrupt or perverted inspirations proverbs 4:23}

Looking for a real treasure from heaven and a new world.

The events prior to a search for a new world and a real heavenly kingdom, would be bloody, violent, and sobering events, because a boundary needed to be sanctified of folly (made holy) so a true identification would be credited, valued, and honored, as a real and just authority. And this sanctification would eventually lead some to true worship, not because a real and greater power demanded or needs it, but because a heavenly boundary was respected, due to an authority behind it that could accomplish its will, and real and true interest was reciprocated; a heavenly dream and desire shared. The people who interpreted the events they were experiencing in this way would eventually be called Separatists, and later referred to as Pilgrims, because they believed only God should control the church not a king or an organized religion (church organization hierarchy), and eventually they would seek a holy land where God would be their provider – because they had an awareness of a power at work and believed God was doing these things for some purpose. Not only did the Separatists want the Church and State to be separated authorities, but the prophets in the Bible called them out to be separate from the religious who did not know God, and they feared being separated from his true glory and righteousness (2Corinthians 6:17-18).

So the Separatists were not particularly associated with any denomination. And those who were later termed Pilgrims, the one's that came from Scrooby England, were just a congregation of believers that were in the pursuit of God's goodness to fulfill his word while being in pursuit of it, because it was seen to be pure and satisfying; uncorrupted. They were separating themselves from imitators (mockers) or feigned believers, to seek God in spirit and in truth. Not at all like the Puritans who were out to reform the Church of England, and relied on their goodness, piety, and works to fulfill God's word which could only end up being an act. Only God can do his own work, and if God isn't real or will not, nobody can if you are realistic!

Anyway, even Bradford was offended when outsiders sometimes called them Puritans as if they thought they were better people. But rather the Separatists saw themselves as better off (blessed) because they wanted God's righteousness to cover them as their necessity (being dead meat otherwise) and were after the purity of his Living Word – knowing it was good and life changing to those who digested it. In other word's they were going to be accountable to God alone for his requirements! Bradford (published 1899) who lived from 1590-1657, and eventually became one of them says, And to cast contempte the more upon ye sincere servants of God, they opprobriously & most injuriously gave unto & imposed upon them, that name of Puritans, which it is said the Novations out of prid did assume & take unto themselves (Bradford's History of Plimoth Plantation, 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, p8-9).

The British Encyclopedia Britannica defines the term Separatist as it was in those times:

A fundamental belief of the Separatists was the idea of the "gathered church" founded by the Holy Spirit, not man or the state. Believing that true Christian believers should seek out other Christians and together form their churches, Separatists emphasized the right and responsibility of each congregation to determine its own affairs, without having to submit those decisions to the judgment of any higher human authority. That notion stood in contrast to the territorial basis of the Church of England, in which everyone in a certain area was assigned to the parish church, and each local parish submitted to the oversight of the larger church hierarchy.

(retrieved from on May 14, 2016)

If one has studied the events of the time, one might see the fundamental reason sincere seekers or Separatists got real was that they were in over their heads because of greater powers waring over a trust to rule a kingdom and possess the people for a dream to be labored for. And in hindsight it appears that a real glory wanted to find a way to reveal itself so a true trust would be established. And all this trouble was going to happen because the "Christian" churches (organizations of men) and the kings were insistent in trying to take God's place, or in the least God's only Son's place as a King over kings, and an intelligence was turning on the people. And no one could find a real and true friend worth their labor; they seemed they couldn't find a for-real interest, and no one was calling on God in truth and for real!

This is the outline of the general events that seemed to have led to a government that would be for the people, but the trust was not in the people. But there would be a choice on who they would willingly trust for a dream and desire to be satisfied which could make a way for a glory. During this enlightenment a greater intelligence would get its credit for its work and authority or eventually its subjects would be surrounded by the terror of an unreal trust!

  1. God's Word would have to be made clear to sincere seekers so it could be accepted or rejected as life/truth
    1. Power struggle on who would represent God
  2. Inviting the Creator/Father to take his place; the reason they were called Separatists
    1. There was a great resistance trying to keep them that would test their desire for the freedom of worship, and a deadly storm wanted to swallow them up; but they fervently sought out God's hand and mercy on them, so they could realize his glory as for real!
    2. The separatist congregation in Leyden was respected because of its honest people and their love for truth, they were becoming a work of God for his fame alone – their love and trust (belief) in God's Living Word was transforming them for his glory.
  3. The separatists now called pilgrims would have to solely rely on God.
    1. A crewman who constantly cursed the Mayflower Pilgrims in their sea sickness, boasting he would like to throw their dead bodies overboard before half the voyage was over, was the only casualty crossing the ocean; the only one who died of sickness at sea before arriving at the coast of North America.
    2. A stormy water barrier would prevent the pilgrims, in their temptation, from relying on the Virginia Company or reliance of any other organized company of men.
    3. A prior plague in the area and the fear of the spirits held the local Indians at bay from attacking the Mayflower passengers: The Indians in the area were seriously considering annihilating any Europeans arriving in merchant ships because some of their people were abducted and taken away to be sold as slaves.
    4. A couple Indians who could speak English would arrive at just the right time, one would be a translator for the Pilgrims to local tribes, familiarize the Pilgrims with the land, and show them how to farm corn to its fullness so that they would have plenty.
  4. A way to true interest realized, and real friendship possible even with those feared to be savages— Thanksgiving for the Promises of God and his Glory with the foreshadow of a new world with true friendships.

God's word was made clear so its people could accept it or reject it as life / truth

After roughly a thousand years of darkness and folly the scriptures would be made readable in their (the seekers) language, those that wanted to know the truth of it. The Bible at the time was written in Latin, Latin being a dead language (not being the vernacular to any nation anymore). Latin was the language of Rome (admired as the latest grand empire among kings and nobles) , the renaissance, or a rich man's language. So I would like it to be noted that there are different dialects {definitions or interpretations of love, freedom, and interest} out there, and even if one knows what was written it could be misunderstood and misinterpreted because of our preconceptions and prejudices (what we think ought to be or ought not to be). So that the bottom line is that, with the conviction and a personal revelation that there is a greater intelligence than us at work, and with a contrite and sincere heart we all have to ask God what he means, what his word means. Or in the least we must want to know what was really happening in the time and environment a book was written, and define the words in the context of the book and chapter it was written in, which may have a slightly different meaning than we have. Also, if God is real and he inspired a prophet to speak his desire, it is meant for you to sanctify yourself and draw closer to God to know his desire or interests more intimately yourself, or run in the other direction, not to bow down to the prophet or someone who has a mysterious holy book (because they flatter you if you follow them). However, anyone who puts you on the right path, or reveals the glory of the truth, would be considered a good friend if he/she really was a God send.

However, it seems in the Dark Ages period of history (500 to 1500 AD) in Europe, there were a few scriptures translated from Latin to various European languages, but not on a large scale prior to the 1500's. But with the refinement of the printing press and the influence of Martin Luther, in 1526 William Tyndale published the first Bible in English not from the Latin Vulgate (fearing it might be misinterpreted or corrupted because of the great lust for power in those days), but from the earliest ancient Greek and Hebrew texts, and made it so the common man could read it – in this case English. And one would think it to be good for every person to know what they might be really following or professing, what the prophets really spoke, whether they were going to trust it should have invoked an interest if God really revealed himself to those who wrote it – that is if God's word really had a real, honorable, and glorious interest, and at that, really from the Living God {the Creator being a being} with the promise for a new world.

This event would bring about some skeptical but sincerely hungry seekers, but for some reason the majority of people didn't seem to want to know a real interest, they didn't want to know the truth of it, and would rather pervert something sacred for their own interest. And that will not find satisfaction either, because it is always evil, unjust, and unwise to deviate a reality – it would be better to find another reality than to corrupt something sacred (and more powerful) and then cling to it – thus the dark ages, superstition, and terror. But these translation events eventually caused two things, Tyndale to be executed as a heretic and other scholars to seek out its validity and print English translations from Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts from the prophets. Later, even King James (who temporarily, somewhat united England and Ireland through his bloodline ties) hired the best scholars to find and print the actual truth of the Biblical scriptures, just to have the truth of it. He might have thought, however far-fetched, maybe a greater glory than himself might be at work? But this Christianity trouble in England first started in Henry Tutor's time, that is King Henry VIII, in his quest for a heavenly authority.

Tyndale worked in an age in which Greek was available to the European scholarly community for the first time in centuries. Erasmus compiled and edited Greek Scriptures into the Textus Receptus–ironically, to improve upon the Latin Vulgate–following the Renaissance–fueling Fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the dispersion of Greek-speaking intellectuals and texts into a Europe which previously had no access to them. When a copy of The Obedience of a Christian Man fell into the hands of Henry VIII, the king found the rationale to break the Church in England from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534.

( retrieved on June 19, 2016 from

Vexing of the heart and a power struggle on who would represent God.

Mary Tudor; Queen Mary 1 of England
Fig.7a-2       Queen Mary I of England from 1533-1558.
Portrait by Antonis Mor in 1554
copyright warning
This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
         So now, at least in Britain, there would be this struggle on whether the church should control the government or kingdom, or that the government or king should control the church, but at this point no one really wanted God to take control. Perhaps not many were desperate enough for something worth their blood and sweat (other than those that were executed for translating the Biblical scriptures), that is they didn't have an inspiration for a true interest and no one knew or sought out a glory bigger than themselves that was truly glorious – worth the best part of their labor. But regardless, after king Henry VIII broke from Catholicism for control, namely to divorce Catherine of Aragon (Spanish decent) for not giving him a son to carry on the Tutor dynasty, the Anglican church would come about. But his first born daughter from Catherine, Mary Tutor, who was declared a bastard by her father, eventually ended up inheriting the thrown after Henry's only son from his 3rd wife died at an early age. And she didn't see her father quite as a God sent or worthy of sovereignty. So Mary Tutor now as Queen Mary I, sought to restore Catholicism for a more international power, influence, and recognition. And as a matter of course, heretics (those who did not acknowledge papal authority) would have to be executed. (nd) reveals that this is probably the origin of the term bloody Mary:

Some of those who were executed include: the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer; Nicholas Ridley, the Bishop of London; and the reformist Hugh Latimer. Although there is debate about the number of deaths, John Fox calculated in his Book of Martyrs that 284 people were executed for questions of faith. These 284 executions were enough for the Protestant historian to name from that moment on, Queen Mary I as Bloodthirsty Mary or the more popular Bloody Mary.

(retrieved on March 13, 2016 from )

Elizabeth Tudor; Queen Elizabeth 1 of England
Fig.7a-3       Queen Elizabeth I of England from 1558-1603.
The portrait by Nicholas Hillard about 1573∼1575
copyright warning
The author died in 1619, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
         Then when Elizabeth Tutor (daughter from Henry's second wife) inherited the throne upon the death of her half-sister Queen Mary I, Catholicism and royal international entanglements would not rule England anymore. All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as supreme governor, which is to be expected in good politics in the context of monarchy, but she was also to become Supreme Governor of the Church of England. And although since then some alterations have proceeded some aspects have been recorded and upheld since 1530s by the British Monarchist League:
…that the ‘Lords Spiritual’ (consisting of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and 24 diocesan bishops) sit in the House of Lords. Parish priests also take an oath of allegiance to The Queen.
(retrieved on June 18, 2016 from )
So that there was not a change in doctrine under Queen Elizabeth I, but a compromise made, in order for a human (not heavenly) control change, and to go a step further and make a human royalty a sovereign authority over all things civil and ecclesiastical {in short an open door potentially for emperor worship}. And at that there was also to be a fine, not a freedom for anyone not attending church services; in the new law of 1559 named the Act of Uniformity.
Even Ridgway, C. (2010) who sympathizes with Queen Elizabeth says this was …so she could be head of the Church (The Elizabeth Files; Act of Uniformity – The Middle Road of Faith, retrieved on June 19, 2016 from

And whether one realizes this or not, this is really sequential to the temptation of taking the place of God {Genesis 3:4} or a possible attempt to feel like one for a season, for a legacy. But in the least, this act was from an ignorant human perspective to pacify religious fantasy {human deification}, to avoid the trouble and conviction of finding something more glorious to be united under, and for real, as king David did in Jewish history (which maybe England wasn't ready or hungry enough for). And so then to keep the country united (although under English royal interest), she would compromise all else in church doctrine, except having a Bible written in English, so her people (through the church) could keep pride in its self (maintain its innocence):

Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England. Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms. As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many Catholic elements, such as priestly vestments.

(retrieved on June 19, 2016 from )

William Bradford, who lived from 1590 to 1657 and later would be a pilgrim on the Mayflower, claims that there was no real change from Catholic to Anglican Christianity in their worship practice, or what and how they worshiped, and that real believers who wanted to worship freely were thought to be a threat to the state. Those few independent congregations that sprung forth, from an understanding of the scriptures for the first time, and feared God out of respect for his providence, those who labors had God's blessing, attracted many new believers but as soon as a child of God was reborn within this freedom of worship, the Anglican Church wanted to subject them.

…when as by the travell & diligence of some godly preachers, & Gods blessing on their labours, as in other places of ye land, so in ye North parts, many became inlightened by ye word of God, and had their ignorance & sins discovered unto them, and begane by his grace to reform their lives, and make conscience of their wayes, the worke of God was no sooner manifest in them, but presently they were both scoffed and scorned by ye prophane multitude, and ye ministers urged with the yoke of subscription, or els must be silenced; and ye poore people were so vexed with apparators, & pursuants, & ye comissarie courts, as truly their affliction was not smale; which, notwithstanding, they bore sundrie years with much patience, till they were occasioned (by ye continuance & increase of these troubls, and other means which ye Lord raised up in those days) to see further into things by the light of ye word of God.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch1, p11-12, retrieved on June 19, 2016 from

As mentioned, the leadership of the new Anglican Church was appointed by the Queen, not by God or some kind of real spiritual conviction; not even claiming some kind of visitation from the living God or any real glory. And this same leadership who didn't believe, though thought God's Word was a mystery to be interpreted by them (they believed only in themselves ‡ their own glory or goodness – some call it blind faith because they knew no glory), didn't even fear God because of the terror of an unreal interest, nor did they to want to know the whole truth, or even care to know of a real, glorious, and true interest, and this leadership helped convince the queen that this freedom of worship {potentially real true love and interest} was dangerous. But actually the forced and feigned acts of worship from human hierarchical instituted churches made people worse, and made many turn to atheism in disdain for the perversion of truth and love that would take foothold in those churches. And even its followers were partly at fault because they went along with it for the flattery {basically, you look good in your coffin – which is not from a friend from heaven} and to avoid going through the conviction and trouble, something worth one's toil to gain a true and real interest. But to push one's self to go through the trouble to find a Greater Glory and a desire fully satisfied (which is the only way one will see it as a GLORY) will cause one to face death and be sanctified of folly enough that they might like to be fully sanctified, transformed, and sheltered in, for a glorious dream to come into reality – FOR REAL!

What grips us so dearly in our blindness that we like to pervert, twist, or demean something glorious {pure and true} for our own glory? But when one is like this and takes it a step further, and claims to represent God or a heavenly glory (when God never sent them), and when they get away with it they despise their followers for believing them because they were stupid enough to believe their lie {it was all holywood: an act to enslave them for a free gift and/or self-flattery}, and then them, and their followers all look to death for salvation, fall in love with it {if that's possible} , and promote it at least subconsciously. I thought salvation was supposed to be about being ransomed from an unreal and untrue interest {death, and an affection for it}. I think Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) saw the same contention because nothing changed in practice between Anglican and Catholic Christianity – when most heard the truth they didn't seek out where God was in all of this, but tried to take his place for their self-flattery which would empower an even deeper darkness:

And this contetion dyed not with queene Mary, nor was left beyonde ye seas, but at her death these people returning into England under gracious queene Elizabeth, many of them being preferred to bishopricks & other promotions, according to their aimes and desires, that inveterate hatered against ye holy discipline of Christ in his church hath continued to this day. In somuch that for fear it should preveile, all plots & devices have been used to keepe it out, incensing ye queene & state against it as dangerous for ye comon wealth…

…And many the like, to stop ye mouthes of ye more godly, to bring them over to yeeld to one ceremoney after after another, and one corruption after another; by these wyles begyleing some & corrupting others till at length they began to persecute all ye zealous professors in ye land (though they knew little what discipline mente) both by word and deed, if they would not submitte to their ceremonies, & become slaves to them & and their popish trash, which have no ground in ye word of God, but are relikes of ye man of sine. And the more ye light of ye gospel grew, ye more ye urged their subscriptions to these corruptions. So as (notwithstanding all their former pretences & fair colures) they whose eyes God had not justly blinded might easily see wherto these things tended. And to cast contempte the more upon ye sincere servants of God, they opprobriously & most injuriously gave unto, & imposed upon them, that name of Puritans, which [it] is said the Novatians out of prid did assume & take unto themselves. And lamentable it is to see ye effects which have followed. Religion hath been disgraced, the godly greeved, afflicted, persecuted, and many exiled, sundrie have lost their lives in prisions & otherways. On the other hand, sin hath been countenanced, ignorance, profannes, & atheisme increased, & the papists encouraged to hope againe for a day.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch1, p7-9, retrieved on June 19, 2016 from

Inviting the Father to take his place; were the events coincidence or providential hand?

As stated earlier, the seekers that were inspired by God's Word (the Bible) to seek out the freedom of worship and escape men's inventions to glorify themselves were termed Separatists in that time. They were called Separatists because they were actually looking for God and to be dependent on God alone as far as worship and guidance (accountability): that being his Living Word which called them out into being separate from the folly; that which is the unreal, unholy, and untrue. And to be dependent on God is to be independent from the world, at least that is how freedom to a naturally supreme authority can be defined. This did not mean they disregarded other authorities, who can only truly find honor if they are under God's authority, covering, and provision. Just that all good things come from God, who is the provider of all who honor his word, and is the only one who can be truly worshiped – he alone can bring down authorities or exalt authorities in the world, and this is to test an interest for a glory either from heaven or hades.

Great Resistance: breaking out of an enslavement to religion to find a heavenly freedom / glory

Regardless, for the separatists under the pastorate of John Robinson in Scrooby England, trials were coming that would sanctify them from all self-reliance and cause them to call on God with a pure interest in their humility and affliction. Because so far their country which they loved became unbearable to them, do to their worshiping and desire for God and in truth, which they could only really do in secret amongst themselves. Bradford (1590-1657, published 1899) says, …for their desires were sett on ye ways of God, & to injoye his ordinances; but they rested on his providence, & knew whom they had beleeved (my emphasis, Book1, Ch2, p16). And Bradford further points out that if they stayed there would be trouble, for there always would be someone to tell on them as a law breaker with their secret worship, and if they left they would have to go through trouble because although the religious people hated them, they also did not want to let them go:

Yet this was not all, for though they could not stay, yet were ye not suffered to goe, but ye ports & havens were shut against them, so as they were faine to seeke secrete means of conveance, & to bribe & fee ye mariners, & give extraordinarie rates for their passages. And yet they were often times betrayed (many of them), and both they and their goods intercepted & surprised, and therby put to great trouble & charge…

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch2, p16, retrieved on June 19, 2016 from

This group of Separatists, known as the Scrooby Congregation, were trying to get to Holland, where there was hearsay of more freedom as far as spiritual matters were concerned, a freedom which they greatly valued. So finally in the spring of 1608 they made a successful attempt to leave England and get to Holland, but not without great cost. Of the ship they made a contract with, only a portion got onboard before a regiment was seen coming, so that they had to hoist sail being split from some of their loved ones (children, husbands, wives) and baggage. And many of those left behind were captured and held for trial. There was a great vexing of the heart, which much later, providence as they then termed it, would reunite them, and would become somewhat famous for their godly courage. But an event that no man could control, or had authority, or had influence over, that only God could possibly deliver them from, was a relentless storm that hit them as they came towards the coast of the Netherlands.

And those on this ship already thought themselves as somewhat being chosen by God, simply because they saw lives change for the good and they understood God's Word where many didn't, not because they thought of themselves as good people, but because they had a real interest and God in his goodness fed his babes and revealed some of his Word to them, what was most relevant to their maturity and situation and they found a new life in it; a life that truly was life. But from here on in they would really start to believe more and more, that they were really called for something greater yet to be made clearer to them, by providence as they would have put it, not because of their righteousness as a Puritan might, but 1) they put God's Living Word {his only uncorrupted Son} as their King before any other only because they genuinely experienced the beauty/light/life in it; and 2) the evidence of God's mercy and grace on them – because the Living God heard their most genuine and sincere prayers when it really counted – they had a return of interest! Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) recounts:

And afterward endured a fearfull storme at sea, being 14. days or more before ye arrived at their port, in 7. wherof they neither saw son, moone, nor stars, & were driven near ye coast of Norway; the mariners them selves often despairing of life; and once with shriks & cries gave over all, as if ye ship had been foundred in ye sea, & they sinking without recoverie. But when mans hope & helpe wholy failed, ye Lords power & mercie appeared in their recoverie; for ye ship rose again, & gave ye mariners courage againe to manage her. And if modestie would suffer me, I might declare with what fervente prayers they cried unto ye Lord in this distress, (espetialy some of them) even without any great distraction, when ye water rane into their mouthes & ears; & the mariners cried out. We sinke, we sinke; they cried (if not with mirakelous, yet with a great hight or degree of devine faith), Yet Lord thou canst save, yet Lord thou canst save; with other such expressions as I will forbare. Upon which ye ship did not only recover, but shortly after ye violence of ye storme begane to abate, and ye Lord filed their afflicted minds with shuch comforts as every one canot understand, and in ye end brought them to their desired Haven, wher ye people came flocking admiring their deliverance, the storme having been so long & sore, in which much hurt had been don, as ye masters friends related unto him in their congratulations.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch2, p19-20, retrieved on June 12, 2016 from

Finding Respect and Honor to the praise of God alone;
their desire for truth and true interest brought them good credit.

William the Silent, Prince of Orange
Fig.7a-5    William the Silent {William I Prince of Orange}
Portrait by Adriaen Thomasz Key in 1570-84
In 1575 William 1 established the University of Leiden:
William 1, although a Catholic, was against the Spanish Inquisition to wipe out all religion not conforming to Catholicism; seems he invested to investigate truth

copyright warning
This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
         Eventually, the Separatists of the Scrooby Congregation ended up in Leiden, Nederland, were a university was located. And some came to join them from England because many desired to be in their congregation, but not very many because there were so many difficulties. Bradford, W. (1590-1657 , published 1899) says, But it was thought that if a better and easier place of living could be had, it would draw many, & take away these discouragments (Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation" , 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch4, p30).

         Bradford also mentions that of all the poor in Holland that if they were known to come from their church congregation, they were favored over others that were need:
…the Dutch (either bakers or others) would trust them in any reasonable matter when yey wanted money. Because they had found by experience how careful they were to keep their word, and saw them so painful & diligent in their callings; yea, they would strive to gett their custome, and to imploy them above others, in their worke, for their honestie & diligence.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch3, p26-27, retrieved on June 25, 2016 from
         And because these Separatists were near the university it seems a few of these Separatists, namely Mr. John Robinson their pastor, participated in some university debates. It appears these debates revolved around some of the ancient documents which now could be interpreted into the common language, which included ancient Arabic, Roman, Greek, and others, but most likely the chief center of attention being the Bible scriptures. This seemed not only to make them attractive among learned men, because of their understanding and sometimes unshakable debates in their sincere love for truth, but also disdain from those who would rather avoid it; so that they were slandered by some for leaving their country so they would be disgraced.

         Jacobus Arminius, a theology professor for liberal Protestantism (Unitarian Church being one result of those that shared the beliefs of Jacobus Arminius) who seems to have believed that salvation was for everybody who believed in the creator was against Calvinism (God has a laid out or predetermined plan for his true children, the Living God's choice and works, not man's). So Jacobus Arminius publically debated pastor John Robinson of the Separatist Congregation who did believe it was God's works, mercy, and real favor {choice}. And although this is not known or written but only speculation on the premise of what the Scrooby Separatists Congregation experienced, he probably would have said that God's mercy did extend to all his creation for an amount of time but his favor is only procured with God's real children who value his word and promises, because they sought the truth of it out with a hunger and in practice, and experienced life {a genuine personal value} and trustworthiness in it –the reason they were born.
But anyway, Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) says both John Robinson and his Separatist congregation gained some honor from these events:
…it caused many to praise God yet the truth had so famous victory, so it procured him much honor & respect from those learned men & others which loved ye truth. Yea, so far were they from being weary of him & his people, as it is said by some, of no mean note, that were it not for giveing offence to ye state of England, they would have preferd him otherwise if he would, and alowd them some publike favour.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch3, p28-29, retrieved on June 25, 2016 from
1660 Painting from Dutch Golden Age
Fig.7a-6       Dutch Golden Age 1600s
Portrait by Caesar van Everdingen Bachus in 1660

This painting reflects the decadent desires the Dutch entertained in their moment of prosperity, and freedom to choose an interest. It kind of reflects what many people would do if they could become gods, as many of the Greeks interpreted their gods inspired desires.

copyright warning
This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
         But also in Leiden, although they had the freedom of worship among themselves, and the Dutch loved them for their honesty and sincere interest, they had a hard living, with their children sometimes being subjected to heavy labor trying to help their parents. It was the beginning of the Dutch Golden Age, and unfortunately if the freedom to get a return on one's interest and labor doesn't lead to valued friendships between employer and employee, and thanksgiving to God who will only make it possible through the glory of his Living Word, then one has to thank and pleasure themselves while using or playing another to do it. And so it seems that the same liberal environment which allowed them the freedom to practice their worship, also allowed the freedom of wantonness or depravity in a somewhat eccentric society. Some of the children even being corrupted by evil temptations and extravagant examples in the environment, departing from their parents.
         Upfront it probably seemed easier to the children to not serve God because of the constant opposition or troubles one has to go through to prove and find a true interest. But what return of interest do players have other than conspiracy against their lovers or neighbors for the money or fame; attempting to pleasure/love one's self (vs giving the strength of their labor away to a real glory that can satisfy and return a real treasured possession beyond comprehension in due season; when all self-reliance is stripped) ?

So after about 12 years, many of them longed for a land where they could lay down a good foundation and be a people to themselves, of which the new frontier of the America's was a remote option and highly unlikely, but possible if they had God's help. Guiana (region in north South America) where Columbus had landed was tropical and rich in vegetation but was argued such hot countries are subject to greevuos diseases, and many noysome impediments, which other more temperate places are freer from, and would not so well agree with our English bodys (Bradford, W. 1899, Plymouth Plantation, ch5: p37). And although the Indians or natives did not seem to be threat there, there would be the very likely possibility the Spanish would subject them or overthrow them. And then there was the Virginia Company in North America were an English colony was established if they might have the freedom of worship on its outskirts, and it seemed the Virginia Company desired more English people to accompany them. But it would be no easy choice and they would debate it among themselves. Because although they would eventually be crushed under their burdens in Leyden, they heard the natives were savages in North America, let alone selling all belongings and risking the perils of the ocean and the forbearing of some sickness due to the change of air, diet, and drinking water.

The place they had thoughts on was some of those vast & unpeopled countries of America, which are frutfull & fitt for habitation, being devoyd of all civill inhabitants, wher ther are only savage & brutish men, which range up and downe, little otherwise then ye wild beasts of the same. This proposition being made publike and coming to ye scaning of all, it raised many variable opinions amongst men, and caused many fears & doubts amongst them selves.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch4, p33, retrieved on June 25, 2016 from

The Separatists, or rather the independent congregation in Leyden as they would have been preferred to be called, looked into the matter with the Virginia Company. And it seems since the homeland of England in general didn't want anything to do with people bound to the freedom of religion, nor did most common Englishmen want to risk moving to untamed North America yet, so that the Virginia Company was desirous to have them and it seems to add to their English numbers. And it seems that because of this desire for an English population in North America at that time, that King James promised he would not molest or persecute them as long as they were peaceable. But the king would not put his seal of approval on them either because although for now he would overlook it, they would practice the freedom of worship apart from his control. But this meant the Separatists could openly book {hire out for a time} a ship and provision from England to go to North America with the Virginia Company helping with the legalities of licensing and purchasing transport.

But after much contract trouble and trying to book transportation, because their hearts were being tested on how badly they wanted to solely rest on God and not man; having obstructions even down to the final moment because of purchasing complications the Virginia Company was having. And eventually a private merchant named Thomas Weston ended up booking some ships for them; making provision and contract with them. This would happen to make them free from any obligation to the Virginia Company in North America, but also the Virginia Company was not obliged to look after them for its interest. Nothing seemed to be going right or smoothly from a human perspective. And again, after going through much vexing of the heart because of so much being risked they would debate it, because this would be a no looking back decision! No modern conveniences, no markets to go to, no restaurants or pubs, no home to come back to, because they would have to sell everything that wouldn't be practical to take and to pay for the venture, and in the end there would be no one but them in an unfamiliar wilderness — and all of this for the love of God's Word or promises? And with this in mind and all the other complications, and on the brink of it becoming a reality, this narrowed down the numbers of those going. Only the most willing, the most desperate to make this sacrifice for this freedom of worship with a childlike trust of God in them, were most likely to take the risk with all the odds seeming to be against them. So of those that did get onboard, and at the point of them departing Holland on a ship that would taxi them to be joined to another ship in Southampton England where they would be bound for North America, Bradford, W. (1590-1657 , published 1899) says, they knew they were pilgrims (Hebrews 11), & looked not much to those things, but lift up their eyes to ye heavens their dearest cuntrie, and quieted their spirits. ( Book1, Ch7, p72)

The separatists now called pilgrims would have to solely rely on God;
and they would realize God actually covered them to procure a trust in his Living Word and promises
(showed his favor – a return of interest).

It was the last week in July of 1620, when those from Holland {western Nertherlands}, left Leyden Nederland {a Holland region of the Netherlands} and arrived in Southampton England to transfer some passengers and add another ship to their voyage. And there were other Englishmen that were to join their plantation as they reluctantly agreed on before they got onboard in Holland. The reason these others were added seems to be that there would be more of a guarantee that provision would be met, and possibly that the merchant men thought a bigger colony means a bigger profit; for the passengers (the colonists) were contracted to supply the merchant ships with goods for what started out as a period of seven years and then be free to their own business {there would end being some foul play much latter by Weston that would stretch out their obligation of debt further}. And this adding of strangers, people not from the Leyden congregation, was feared to bring some trouble due to their different values. And they did end up being a thorn in their side which of course would bring them to their knees at times, forcing them to sincerely ask God for his council. Braford, W. (1590 - 1657, published 1899) states that because those who received the money in England had some differences that;

…ther was one chosen in England to be joined with them, to make ye provisions for ye vioage; his name was Mr. Martin, he came from Billirike in Essexe, from which parts came sundrie others to goe with them, as also from London and other places; and therefore it was thought meete & conveniente by them in Holand that these strangers that were to go with them, should apointe one thus to be joined with them, not so much for any great need of their help, as to avoyd all susspition, or jelosie of any partiallite. And indeed their care for giving offence, both in this & other things afterward, turned a great inconvenience unto them, as in ye sequell will apeare; but however it shewed their equall & honest minds.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch6, p68-69, retrieved on June 25, 2016 from

And after setting off on the two ships in Southampton England that would take them to directly to North America, they would be weeded out again with yet another discouragement, till only those who were the most reliant on God were left. The smaller of the two ships seemed to be leaky, and after turning back twice and docking for repairs, the ship master of this ship {ship now known as the Speedwell} with his crew changed his mind and didn't want to go. So they had to exchange everything and everyone willing to just one ship, which caused some of the passengers to also turn back; becoming late in the year, a little cramped in just one ship, running low on provision, and just one trouble to many.

So now, a month after first arriving in Southampton England, and some off their provision eaten up while waiting, September 6, 1620 they finally departed on one ship, the Mayflower, to go directly to North America. But with the ship a little cramped, supplies a little questionable, and many coming down with sea sickness, there was a little tension onboard which seemed to help set off a hostel crewman who would threaten the ill and dismayed. He would openly tell them that he hoped that their illness would kill half of them, and to throw their bodies overboard before the journeys end, and he would constantly curse them. But his curse fell upon himself half the journey over, so that there was an acknowledgment of God. Acknowledgment in the sense that God was really watching over those who truly reverence his desires (his children), and provided some justice and relief:

Ther was a proud & very profane yonge man, one of ye sea-men, of a lustie, able body, which made him the more hauty; he would allway be contemming ye poore people in their sickness, & cursing them dayly with greeous execrations, and did not let to tell them, that he hoped to help to cast halfe of them over board before they came to their jurneys end, and to make mery with what they had; and if he were by any gently reproved, he would curse and swear most bitterly. But it pleased God before they came halfe seas over, to smite this yong man with a greeveous disease, of which he dyed in a desperate maner, and so was him selfe ye first yt [that] was thrown overbord. Thus his curses light on his owne head; and it was an astonishmente to all his fellows, for they noted it to be ye just hand of God upon him.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch9, p90-91, retrieved on July 3, 2016 from

         And around this half way point the Mayflower encountered some cross winds and some fierce storms, in which a main beam going across the ship bowed and cracked. So the ships crewman were besides themselves on whether they should turn back. But the passengers from Holland brought a great iron screw probably for construction purposes in their new plantation, and they brought it out so the crewman could jack the main cross support beam firmly into place, which they then put posts under it for extra support. This relieved all fears that some of crewman had of possibly not being able to finish the voyage because of these fierce storms. Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) reports:
But in examening of all opinions, the mr. & others affirmed they knew ye ship to be stronge & firme under water; and for the buckling of ye maine beame, ther was a great iron scrue ye passengers brought out of Holland, which would raise ye beame into his place; ye which being done, the carpenter & mr. affirmed that with a post put under it, set firm in ye lower deck, & otherways bounde, he would make it sufficiente.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch9, p92, retrieved on July 3, 2016 from

A stormy water barrier would prevent the pilgrims, in their temptation and lack of faith;
from relying on the Virginia Company or a reliance of any other institutions of men

illustration of shoal breakers
Fig.7a-8       Breaker Wave image
Shutterstock illustration © Zacarias Pereira da Mata

When a current or flow of water runs into a dramatic reduction of depth, such as a reef, underwater island or underwater sandbar (shoal), or self, the water layer underneath has to reduce speed or change direction, while the unobstructed upper water layer tries to maintains its speed while passing over the lower water layer and forms a white caped wave or C shaped wave, depending on the water volume that's moving. This is common near shorelines and surfers like to ride them, but not so common miles away from the shoreline as it is just south of Cape Cod. And if there are many currents coming from different directions and with underwater gullies from multiple shoals, unpredictable currents can form, and riptides {streams of back currents} are more common.
illustration of shoal breakers
white water stopper, eddy, or whirlpool image
Shutterstock illustration © Cheryl Casey

When there are two currents trying to go in nearly opposite directions – an eddy, whirlpool or stopper can form, keeping anything on top at its mercy; keeping it from going anywhere but around in circles, until it spits it out. The currents and topography of Pollock Rip have both of these possibilities depending on the ever changing conditions of the ever shifting currents and ever shifting underwater sandbars in the Nantucket Sound area.
         Once they reached the coast of North America, they were in the vicinity of Cape Cod, they then set out to go south to the bay of the Hudson River towards the northern outskirts of the Virginia Company. It seems in their fears or unfamiliarity with the land they wanted to be close to the Virginia Company, so they might be protected and have communication with the Virginia Company; the possibility to work and trade with them while maintaining their freedom of worship. But it seems the Seperatists or pilgrims were not to be dependent on anyone but God and his Living Word, because a place now referred to as Pollock Rip (back then was named Tuckers Terrour, Pointe Care, or Malabarr by the French) where cross winds and strong cross currents often times collide, would not let them pass further south and was threatening to suck them into its maze or whirlpool like behavior and maybe even wreck them into the ever shifting under water sandbars it creates. But before they ventured to far and too deep into this cloudless like storm, mainly of underwater currents, it seems a southern wind, although waning, but still offering to blow them out of its center back to where they were coming from, that they relented and turned back and took it as sign of Gods guiding and warning them not to go there:
But after they sailed ye course aboute halfe ye day, they fell amongst deangerous shoulds and roring breakers, and they were so farr intangled ther with as they conceived them selves in great danger; & ye wind shrinking upon them withal, they resolved to bear up again for the Cape, and thought them selves hapy to gett out of those dangers before night overtooke them, as by Gods providence they did.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch9, p93-94, retrieved on July 3, 2016 from

Once the Mayflower Pilgrims docked in Cape Cod (November 11, 1620) they set out to discover where among the coast they might reside and build shelter for the winter. And they also wanted to meet any natives if possible to trade and understand the territory. They saw a few of them but could not connect with them because they evaded them. In their searching out the area they found abandoned Indian grounds and some big round sand mounds as if some valuables had been buried there. Some of the mounds they dug into turned out to be burial mounds. And after they dug a couple open being curious, they resided to not touch any more of them if they knew it was a grave. After all, the pilgrims wanted to spread the gospel and the love of God among other things, not offence and disdain, if it could be helped. Winslow, E. (1622) reports:

We musing what it might be, digged and found a bow, and, as we thought, arrows, but they were rotton; we supposed there were many other things, but because we deemed them as graves, we put in the bow again and made it up as it was, and left the rest untouched, because we thought it would be odious unto them to ransack their sepulchers.

(Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the English Plantation at Plymouth , 1622 London, p8)

But then a little ways away they also saw, what seemed to have been a house, and a European kettle, and another heap of sand. And this sand mound seemed to be fairly fresh because they could see the hand prints which padded it down. And it seems the pilgrims thought there might be evidence of some former Europeans in the area because of the kettle and some other findings, later they would find out there was but with no good end, so it seems they dug it up being overwhelmed with curiosity. And to their surprise they found a store house of corn {10 bushels all together}, taking the edge off of the fear they might starve before they could find anything to plant in the spring. And this was too good to be true in their present desperate situation not having much left or anything much to farm in the spring, and seemed to be perfect timing, so it was attributed to be providence {God's plan and provision} that guided them to find it. And after they got on their feet, they also planned to recompense for what they took if any belonged to it were around and still alive.

The corn & beans they brought away, purposing to give them full satisfaction when they should meet with any of them (as about some 6. months afterward they did, to their good contente). And here it is to be noted a spetiall providence of God, and great mercie to this poore people, that here they gott seed to plant them corn ye next year, or els they might have starved, for they had none, nor any liklyhood to get any till ye season had been past.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book1, Ch10, p100, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

A plague just so happened to clear the land of native inhabitants where the Pilgrims settled, and a fear would keep the Indians at bay

native American medicine man
Fig.7a-9    American native shaman
Kobby Dagan /
The festival of Valle del Maiz on May 31, 2015 in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.
         December 16, 1620 they finally settled in a place…they called New Plymouth but later was renamed Plymouth Rock. It was also learned around three months later from two Indians named Samaset and Squanto that the place they resided was known to them as Patuxet. And the reason no Indians dwelled in this immediate area is that a plague wiped out all the inhabitants, so that none wanted to lay claim to it. Winslow, E. (1622) says of the Indian named Samoset:
…he told us the place where we now live, is called Patuxet, and that about four years ago, all the inhabitants died of an extraordinary plague, and there is neither man, woman, nor child remaining, as indeed we have found none, so there is none to hinder our possession, or to lay claim to it…

(Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the English Plantation at Plymouth , 1622 London, p21-22)

So in the sense of addressing greater powers that can direct one's fate: providence {God directing and providing for his real children: those who find life in his word} or the realization of a greater intelligence at work, that wants to redeem the lost and those trapped in darkness, I think it is worth mentioning, is that these Indians were somewhat spiritual. That is these Indians actually believed there were forces in nature at work that were beyond them, and sometimes a petition could be granted from the spirits that controlled nature. The Bible refers to this as witchcraft (2Chr 33:6), because for one to truly be seeking God one has to be looking for nature's creator, and ultimately salvation, because nature or rather all physical creation {including us} is afflicted with the bitterness of death and darkness – its enslaved and controlled by it. But the reason we can reasonably conclude the natives were open to spiritual matters is that they were not hypocrites, but somewhat had a reverent respect to something greater that was in control above themselves – FOR REAL – and put what they somewhat believed in, into practice. For example: later, after the Pilgrims established some kind of trust with the Pokanoket natives, Samaset and Squanto would confess, because of some bad experience the Indians had with some European merchants the years prior which we will address later, is that they gathered together all the witchdoctors or medicine men (their spiritual leaders) and had religious ceremony petitioning the powers in nature to curse the Mayflower people, maybe hoping the plague or spirits that took the Patuxet would also consume the Mayflower attendants.

Also, (as after was made knowne,) before they came to ye English to make friendship, they got all the Powachs of ye cuntrie, for 3. Days together, in horid and divellish maner to curse & execrate them with their cunjurations, which assembly & service they held in a dark & dismale swampe.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2, Ch11, p119, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

And it so happens that after the Pilgrims had gotten not much housing erected in their settlement, during January and February half of their company died, and they would be humbled and refined further. Bradford (1590-1657, published 1899) says they started with a little over 100 persons and would only be left with about 50 persons from what seems to be a combination of cold, sickness, and scurvy (Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", p111, Book2). So maybe one reason that the neighboring Indians would stay aloof, outside of the fear that if they attacked the English more would come in retaliation, but would be open to meeting them later is that the Indians might have perceived these Christians had some kind of favor with the spirits, or even the Great Spirit, because although many died, half survived and were made stronger through it – in other words they were not fully wiped out by the plague like the Patuxet people were. So I am theorizing that these Indians had the possibility of coming into an actual belief/trust in the creator or Judge of heaven and earth. And one of reasons this theory seems to play out, is that two years latter in 1623, after a few more separatists from Holland arrived on a ship named Anne, there was a drought in the Plymouth Rock area. Bradford, W.(1590-1657, published 1899) says they set apart a whole day for prayer, and the Indians that were among them were astonished! And although the Plymouth Pilgrims had an unofficial day of thanksgiving with the first treaty agreed between them and the great Sachem (chief) Massasoit and the Pokanoket (or Wampanoag) Indians, which we will get to, this seemed to be the first official day of thanksgiving, practiced latter among them at the end of harvest:

…a great drought which continued from ye 3. weeke in May, till about ye middle of July, without any raine, and with great heat (for ye most parte), insomuch as ye corne begane to wither away, though it was set with fishe, the moysture wherof helped it much. Yet at length it begane to languish sore, and some of ye drier grounds were partched like withered hay, part wherof was never recovered. Upon which they sett a parte a solemne day of humillation, to seek ye Lord by humble & fervente prayer, in this great distrese. And he was pleased to give them a gracious & speedy answer, both to their owne, & the Indeans admiration, that lived amongest them. For all ye morning, and the greatest part of the day, it was clear weather & very hotte, and not a cloud or any signe of rain to be seen, yet toward evening it begane to overcast, and shortly after to raine, with shuch sweete and gentle showers, as gave them cause of rejoyceing, & blessing God. It came, without either wind, or thunder, or any violence, and by degreese in yet abundance, as that ye earth was thorowly wete and soked therwith. Which did so apparently revive & quicken ye decayed corne & other fruits, as was wonderfull to see, and made ye Indeans astonished to behold; and afterwards the Lord sent them shuch seasonable showers, with enterchange of fair warme weather, as, through his blessing, caused a fruitfull & liberall harvest, to their no small comforte and rejoicing. For which mercie (in time conveniente) they also sett aparte a day of thanksgiving.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch14, p170-171(footnotes), retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

pilgrim village reconstruction
Fig.7a-10       An on-site reconstruction of 1600 plymouth plantation colony
initiated by Henry Hornblower II in 1942
There is more information and images about the Plymouth Plantation Museum at
Caution: this is a Shutterstock image © alexsvirid

But getting back to January - February of 1621 before they talked to any natives, the first few months of their arrival, this plague did bring out the worst in some, so that best could shine and be heart changing to those who were indifferent. Not all on the ship were from the Separatists congregation, and all in the congregation may not have been born again believers, at least yet. Anyway, there were some that did not want to help the others that were sick in fear of catching whatever the other had. With the passengers residing for the most part on land in what cabins they managed to get up, which it appears the sick being mainly kept in their meeting house or rendezvous as Winslow terms it. And most of the ship's crew hands resided on the Mayflower ship. Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) comments of those in the settlement:

And of these in ye time of most distress, ther was but 6. or 7. sound persons, who, to their great comendations be it spoken, spared no pains, night nor day, but with abundance of toyle and hazard of their own health, fetched them woode, made them fires, drest them meat, made their beads, washed their lothsome cloaths, cloathed & uncloathed them; …and all this willingly & cheerfully, without any grudging in ye least, showing their true love unto their freinds & bretheren.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch11, p111, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

And the crew men who resided on the ship, drinking only bear, because it seems to me many of them thought the sickness came from the water. And they also avoided those on shore because many of them were sick. But shortly the shipmates would also fall to this plague that beset them in cold, and Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) points out , …for they that before had been boone companions in drinking & joyllity in ye time of health & welfare, began now to deserte one another in this calamitie… (p113). And then some of the able passengers from shore came to visit and help the sick on board the ship:

But shuch of ye passengers as were yet abord shewed them what mercy they could, wich made some of their hearts relent, as ye boatson (& some others), who was a prowd yonge man, and would often curse & scofe at ye passengers; but he grew weak, they had compassion on him and helped him; then he confessed he did not deserve it at their hands, he had abused them in word & deed. O! saith he, you, I now see, shew your love like Christians indeed one to another, but we let one another lye & dye like doggs.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch11, p113, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

During this time the pilgrims had many small, distant, aloof encounters from the Indians. And getting back to the reasons many American Indians had become increasingly hostile to so called “Christian” European merchants and settlers, of which the Spanish were most famous for but to the south, was because they were looking to rob the land of any treasured resources and/or enslave the natives in their ignorance. The local Indians which usually seemed to be warring against each other at various times for almost similar reasons, would now be united against Christian European merchants mainly because some of theirs were taken away as slaves to Europe, and the European Merchant's lust for riches was taking away their land rights. And if it weren't for providence or a force making a way for Mayflower Pilgrims, the Pilgrims would have been swallowed up by the retribution the Indians had building up in them.

A few years prior to the Mayflower Pilgrims landing, going by Bradford and Winslow's writings of what two of the local Indians later told them, an English Merchant named Hunt came into this area and claimed to want to truck with the Indians in this area, trucking meaning trade goods in those times. And when Hunt got them on his ship he abducted them, and shot any others trying to stop him, and took them to Spain (Bradford, ch11, p116-117, Book2). And an Indian named Squanto or sometimes called Tisquantum was a native Patuxet Indian, and was taken away by Hunt with some Nauset Indians to be sold as slaves in Spain. Winslow (1622) says,

These people are ill affected towards the English, by reason of one Hunt, a master of a ship, who deceived the people, and got them under the color of trucking with them, twenty out of this very place where we inhabit, and seven men from Nauset, and carried them away, and sold them for slaves, like a wretched man (for twenty pound a man) that cares not what mischief he doth for his profit.

(Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the English Plantation at Plymouth , 1622 London, p22)

Can events that are so perfectly timed and consistently orchestrated toward a particular people be considered luck or chance, or was it fate and a providential hand? Fate being a destiny secured by a transcendent intelligence for its children that share its interest, and that can accomplish its will for its glory. But anyway, perfectly timed events which were attributed by the Mayflower Pilgrims (Separatists) as providence, would have Squanto escape to England, learn English, and then be brought back in June-July 1620, four months prior to the landing of the Mayflower Pilgrims which was November 1620, which would ensure their survival in a potentially hostile environment. So anyway, when Squanto first returned he found he was a sole survivor of his tribe, him being a native Patuxet, the tribe that was wiped out a few years earlier by a plague. So he apparently was adopted by chief Massasoit and the Pokanoket tribe {a part of the Wampanoag people}, who Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) records resided about 40 miles away (p123). So a few months after Squanto's return the Mayflower Pilgrims came to rest in Squanto's (otherwise Tisquantem) former homeland, and Squanto (and a couple others) could speak English. Communication being elementary for understanding; procuring a potential trust, peace, and friendship. And combining that with him having an attachment to the land because he was raised there, and so being drawn to check it out once in a while to see if the curse was gone out of that land, he was bound to make a connection with the Pilgrims who now resided there.

He was a native of this place, & scarce any left alive besides him self. He was carried away with diverse others by one Hunt, a mr. of a ship, who thought to sell them for slaves in Spain: but he got away for England, and was entertained by a marchante in London, & imployed to New-found-land & other parts, & lastly brought hither into these parts by one Mr. Dermer, a gentle-man imployed by Sr. Ferdinando Gorges & others, for discovery, & other designes in these parts.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch11, p116, retrieved on July 8, 2016 from

Indians who could speak fluent English would arrive at just the right time and place, be a translator to local tribes, and one would familiarize the Pilgrims with the land, and show them how to farm corn to its fullness

So getting back again to the Plymouth Plantations first few months, their first winter and the time they were plagued, according to Winslow, E. (1622) February 16, 1621 while a couple of the Mayflower attendants that were active {not bedridden of sickness} and were at work in the woods, some natives came and stole a bunch of the tools they were using to build their settlement with. And then, a day later some of the natives made a notion for the Pilgrims to come to them, but only two of the Pilgrims went, one being armed, and only went part way, probably fearing an ambush, and laid down his musket piece in a sign of peace, but the savages would not tarry their coming ( A Relation or Journal of the Proceedings of English Plantation Settled at Plymouth, p20-21 ). Of course this caused the pilgrims to tighten up security because the natives were getting bolder and closer but yet being sneaky. But then as spring was coming in, something out of the ordinary happened. In mid-March 1621, 4 months after their beginnings in their settlement they originally called New Plymoth, a native named Samaset came walking boldly yet unthreateningly into their settlement who could speak English!

Sachem Massasoit of Pokanoket Indians
Fig.7a-11    Sachem (Chief) Massasoit
sculpted by Cyrus Edwin Dallin errected in 1921
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This picture is in the Library of Congress and may have restrictions other than editorial use.
His name was Samaset; he tould them also of another Indian whos name was Squanto, a native of this place, who had been in England & could speake better English then him selfe. Being, after some time of entertainmente & gifts, distmist, a while after he came againe, & 5. more with him, & they brought againe all ye tooles that were stolen away before, and made way for ye coming of their great Sachem, called Massasoyt; who, about 4. or 5. days after, came with the cheefe of his freinds & other attendance, with aforesaid Squanto. With whom, after frendly entertainment, & some gifts given him, they made peace with him (which hath now continued this 24. years) in these terms.
  1. That neither he nor any of his, should injurie or doe hurte to any of their peopl.
  2. That if any of his did any hurte to any of theirs, he should send ye offender, that they might punish him.
  3. That if any thing were taken away from theirs, he should cause it to be restored; and they should doe ye like to his.
  4. If any did unjustly warr against him, they would aid him; if any did warr against them, he should aid them.
  5. He should send to his neighbours confederats, to certifie them of this, that they might not wrong them, but might be likewise comprised in ye conditions of peace.
  6. That when their men came to them, they should leave their bows & arrows behind them.
After these things he returned to his place caled Sowans, some 40. Mile from this place, but Squanto contiued with them, and was their interpreter, and was a spetiall instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectation. He directed them how to set their corne, wher to take fish, and to procure other commodities, and was also their pilott to bring them to unknown places for their profitt, and never left them till he dyed.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch11, p114-116, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

The above peace treaty was between the Plymouth Plantation and king Massasoit of the Pokanoket Indians, or rather the great Sachem named Massasoit (Bradford spells Massasoyt), hoping for other native tribes to subscribe to the same. But the reason point 4 is spelled out in the peace treaty, the Plymouth Pilgrims were looking to set up a potential friendship that might be procured through their love for God, spreading the gospel, and securing a real trust and interest. Because if you remember, originally the Pilgrims risked coming to this place in their desire for God to control their congregation, while leaning solely on the scriptures for guidance, so that they had a distant fear of Christian European kings coming and taking their freedom of worshiping God away, for their own obeisance. So Indian friends might be of value not just against other hostel Indians, but maybe if an intimidation from distant European kings did unlikely present themselves. And then, on the other side of the table, the natives were not only were having problems with European merchants, but also different Indian tribes would abuse and steel from each other, so that the Sachem (king or Chief) Massasoit of the Pokanokets (later in history related as part of Wampanoag family tree) also saw a hope for some kind of alliance and peace. Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) records a tribe that would come and pillage the local natives from time to time:

Tisquantum (Squanto) scetch
Fig.7a-12    "Tisquantum (Squanto)
The German Kali Works, New York 1911
The following view is only of :
Because of the power Squanto had as an interpreter and the security he had amongst the Plymouth Pilgrims he fell into the temptation to intimidate or blackmail other native tribes for gifts, or threaten to bring war upon them from the English, this folly started around the spring of 1622 (p136). And in September of 1622 while Squanto was guiding a few colonists southward to trade with some natives Squanto suddenly fell sick …Squanto fell sick of an Indean feavor, bleeding much at ye nose (which ye Indeans take for a simptome of death), and within a few days dyed ther; desiring ye Gov to pray for him, that he might goe to ye Englishmens God in heaven…
(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2, p155, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from
Were all these diseases to be blamed on Englishmen or otherwise, or their ignorance? Why were they so selective at this point and time? Or where not all events working for a greater authority and intelligence that was going to get its credit for the accomplishments of its work because it could accomplish the Glorious promises of its Word? The people weren't naturally for the people!
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This image might not be in the " public domain outside of the United States; this especially applies in the countries and areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada, Mainland China (not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany, Mexico, and Switzerland. The creator and year of publication are essential information and must be provided.
After this, ye 18, Sepembr: they sente out ther shalop to Massachusets, with 10. Men, and Squanto for their guid and interpreter, to discover and view that bay, and trade with ye natives; the which they performed, and found kind entertainment. The people were much affraid of ye Tartentins, a people to ye eastward which used to come in harvest time and take away their corn, & many times kill their persons.

(Bradford's history of "Plimoth plantation", 1899 Boston, Wright & Potter printing co., state printers, Book2 or Ch12, p126, retrieved on July 4, 2016 from

Winslow, E. (1622) also writes, sometime after this treaty, while out with some men looking to retrieve a boy who was lost in the woods, Here we understood, that the Narragansetts had spoiled some of Massasiot's men, and taken him. This struck some fear in us, because the colony was so weakly guarded, the strength thereof being abroad (A Relation or Journal of the Proceedings of English Plantation Settled at Plymouth, p32). The Narragansett natives had some disdain against the Plymouth Pilgrims, who later in the year of 1621 sent the Pilgrims a threat, not for a fear the Narragansett tribe would be taken advantage of by the Pilgrims, but because the Pilgrim settlers were in the way of them taking advantage over other native tribes, which the prior plague seemed to have opened a passage to. Bradford, W. (1590-1657, published 1899) mused over why this threat was sent to the Plymouth Plantation and concludes, And it is like ye reason was their owne ambition, who, (since ye death of so many of ye Indeans,) thought to dominire & lord it over ye rest, & conceived ye English would be a barr in their way, and saw that Massasoyt took sheilter under their wings ( p134).

And to prove the Separatists also feared European kings that might want to take their freedom of religion away {the way they practice real and true worship} for their own glorification: A year since the Plymouth Pilgrims first arrival in North America at Cape Cod which was November 1620, a European ship with the name Fortune came towards the Cape in November 1621, being sent from Thomas Weston the merchant who secured a contract for providing the Pilgrims venture with the Mayflower, with thirty five more people to add to the colony and looking for a return of goods as per contract. But because the Mayflower had departed back for England roughly six months earlier and the Pilgrims didn't expect any return so soon, so at first thought it to be other Merchant troublemakers, namely a French Merchant ship, which have also visited this area according to the native Indians. But regardless the Pilgrim Separatists feared being subjected to any European powers that would take their freedom (primary one being the worship of God) away and ruin their endeavors, just as the Pokanoket Indians or Massasoit's tribe were afraid of being subject to some other tribes of Indians, such as Narragansett at this moment in time. So they got ready for the worst and armed themselves.

You see, after unloading the plantation passengers and their provisions in December 1620, the Mayflower ship finally went back for England around the beginning of April 1621, five months after it arrived in Cape Cod because the plagues and troubles over the winter prevented the captain from justifying risking any extra hazard to the colony or the state of his weakened crew by leaving earlier – they needed some recovery time. And so, with the Mayflower a written report from Edward Winslow (senior leader from the Plymouth Colony) was sent back to Thomas Weston of their trials and discoveries of those first few months and explaining why the Mayflower was detained in returning. So now, it being only about six months since the Mayflower left them Winslow, E. (1622) reveals an insecurity they had in a second report sent back with this ship, named Fortune, that was the first ship come to them since the Mayflower dropped them off. And this report somewhat reveals the Plymouth Pilgrim's fear of being subjected to ungodly but religious kings or strange Merchant ships, and in it he admits that, at first this ship was thought to be an enemy and they were ready to fight if necessary trusting that God would cover them for his name sake:

Our supply of men from you came the ninth of November 1621, putting in at Cape Cod, some eight or ten leagues from us, the Indians that dwell thereabout were they who were owners of the corn which we found in caves, for which we have given them full content, and are in great league with them, they sent us word there was a ship near unto them, but thought it to be a Frenchman, and indeed for ourselves, we expected not a friend so soon. But when we perceived that she made for our bay, the governor commanded a great piece to be shot off, to call home such as were abroad at work; whereupon every man, yea, boy that could handle a gun were ready, with full resolution, that if she were an enemy, we would stand in our defense, not fearing them, but God provided better for us than we supposed; these came all in health unto us, not any being sick by the way (otherwise than seasickness) and so continue at this time, by the blessing of God, the goodwife Ford was delivered of a son the first night she landed, and both of them are very well.

(Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the English Plantation at Plymouth , 1622 London, p38)

Thanksgiving for the promises of God and his glory with the foreshadow of a new world with real and true friendships

But earlier in this same report or letter from Edward Winslow mentioned above, that was sent back with the ship Fortune, he reports the rest of their beginnings from about the time the Mayflower left the plantation to return to England until the arrival of the ship Fortune, and the party of plenty with the friendship of the local natives, which appeared to became the icon of the first Thanksgiving. However this first thanksgiving was at about the same time of year the Hebrew Passover was celebrated, when YahShua Moshiach was maimed and willingly offered his untainted life {for his Father's desires to be satisfied} for the sins of those lost in darkness, in late March or early April {Easter time in pagan culture}. But the Plymouth Pilgrims would have more than one thanksgiving to God for delivering them from distresses and death, and there was a more official one at least among themselves, that Bradford wrote about, at the end of the harvest season as quoted earlier. And there was but a glimpse, but the tasted reality of the potential friendships in a new world with a real heavenly trust.

Edward Winslow potrait
Fig.7a-13    Edward Winslow
Portrait done by Robert Walker in 1651
The only Mayflower passenger that is known to have had a portrait made (he did get involved in politics).
copyright warning
This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
You shall understand, that in this little time, that a few of us have been here, we have built seven dwelling-houses, and four for the use of the plantation, and have made preparation for divers others. We set the last spring some twenty acres of Indian corn, and sowed some six acres of barley and peas, and according to the manner of the Indians, we manured our ground with herrings or rather shads, which we have in great abundance, and take at great ease at our doors. Our corn did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good, but our peas not worth the gathering, for we feared they were to late sown, they came up very well, and blossomed, but the sun parched them in the blossom; our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a more special manner rejoice together, after we had gathered the fruit of our labors; they four in one day killed as much fowl, as with a little help beside, served the company almost a week, at which time amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest King Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain, and others. And although it be not always so plentiful, as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. We have found the Indians very faithful in their covenant of peace with us; very loving and ready to pleasure us: we often go to them, and they come to us; some of us have been fifty miles by land in the country with them; the occasions and relations whereof you shall understand by our general and more full declaration of such things as are worth noting, yea, it hath pleased God so to possess the Indians with a fear of us, and love unto us, that not only the greatest king amongst them called Massasoit, but also the all the princes and peoples round about us, have either made suit unto us, or been glad of any occasion to make peace with us, so that seven of them at once have sent their messengers to us that end, yea, an Fle at sea, which we never saw hath also together with the former yielded willingly to be under the protection, and subjects to our sovereign Lord King James, so that there is now great peace amongst the Indians themselves, which was not formerly, neither would have been but for us; and we for our parts walk peaceably and safely in the wood, as in the highways in England, we entertain them familiarly in our houses, and they as friendly bestowing their venison on us.

(Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the English Plantation at Plymouth , 1622 London, p37-38)

You will also notice in the above report from Winslow that he refers to King James as the sovereign Lord, and indeed this was a stumbling stone to their potential friendship with the natives as well as their friendship with God. It is even doubted that although Winslow joined the Separatists in Holland that he was ever truly one of them, because later he did join himself with Puritan merchants in England in an inquisition against other inquisitions {namely the Catholic Spanish} therefore becoming like them thinking he was good enough to do God's work, glorify himself, and for the wrong rewards – which according to Wikipedia he died near Jamaica of Yellow Fever. Puritans were not Separatists in the full sense, Separatists were about separating themselves, independent to prove if God is truly with them {depending on God to be their provider: providence}, and if with a real interest in his Living Word, sincerely asking God to glorify himself – do his works. Puritans, although they wanted to adhere to the Bible, were about the works of men, their own piety and ultimately self-deification just like those they were against – they thought they were justified by acting out the law, rather than being blessed by God's mercy in showing them a way to a true interest.

But whether you see it this way or not yet, then let history give us the lesson of hindsight, if this really was a stepping stone {as Bradford even realized from a distance} that would lead to the only time there would be a government for the people {other than Jerusalem up to the arrival of YehShua Moshiach}. Because although the Plymouth Pilgrim's children may have soon forgotten the peril and sacrifices of their parents, and God's blessing on their sanctified sacrifices, God did not forget because a way was made for him to bring Glory to his own work, for his own name sake. So that in the next hundred years real and true believers would be yet be sanctified {and many times ashamed} from this calling anyone dreaded Sovereign king, when God's Only Son, his Living Word, was the only one worthy to be called their Sovereign King; he was the glory and gift of God (Creator Father) to the people, and the only true represtative for the people in this world! And God's judgment is the only thing to truly fear {because he always shows mercy to those who receive it as a just discipline } –for a man's glory fades away rather quickly along with his terror.

So, an evolution or transformation in the people would take place over some time, and invention and prosperity would spring from a geniune heavenly interest and to prove how this interest would be invested {reciprocated into whose intelligence/trust} , but true friendships worth ones labor were now possible. This never happened before on this level for the common people! Was there an intelligence or intelligent design from heaven at work? This was the belief that lead to thanksgiving, a God given land that was for the people (his children), and THE OUTRAGEOUS GLORIOUS DREAMS THAT COULD COME TRUE. Or we at least could say, the forthcoming US citizens had the option and freedom to pursue happiness because of the forefathers real and true interest towards God's Word, with the potential of a return from heaven if the interest was received by its children because God was merciful to them, not because they deserved it, but because of another's sacrifice on their behalf, which in this case were all branches from the true vine (John 15) YeShua Moshiach whom gets all the credit; God's only Son of Man conceived from heaven – man's only fully worthy representative to the Holy Judge (his Father) who is forever just in judgment. And so, for the Plymouth Pilgrims and others who have had a sincere interest in God's desires, who have found the promise of a new world better, the seemingly impossible happened and they gave thanks for God's favor because they were delivered from death and got a glimpse and taste of a new world and its glory! Trust in God's Living Word was secured.

These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.

(emphasis mine, Hebrews 11: 13-16, King James Version)

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